High concentration of residual aluminum oxide on titanium surface inhibits extracellular matrix mineralization
https://doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.31810 Inc. J Biomed Mater Res, 2008
In the present study we characterized titanium (Ti) surfaces submitted to different treatments and evaluated the response of osteoblasts derived from human alveolar bone to these surfaces. Five different surfaces were evaluated: ground (G), ground and chemical etched (G1‐HF for 60 s), sand blasted (SB‐Al2O3 particles 65 μm), sand blasted and chemical etched (SLA1‐HF for 60 s and SLA2‐HF for 13 s). Surface morphology was evaluated under SEM and roughness parameters by contact scanning instrument. The presence of Al2O3 was detected by EDS and the amount calculated by digital analyses. Osteoblasts were cultured on these surfaces and it was evaluated: cell adhesion, proliferation, and viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, total protein content, and matrix mineralization formation. Physical and chemical treatments produced very different surface morphologies. Al2O3 residues were detected on SB and SLA2 surfaces. Only matrix mineralization formation was affected by different surface treatments, being increased on rough surface (SLA1) and reduced on surface with high amount of Al2O3 residues (SB). On the basis of these findings, it is possible to conclude that high concentration of residual Al2O3 negatively interfere with the process of matrix mineralization formation in contact with Ti implant surfaces.
Note: Of course! Aluminum is bound to osteomalacia, softens the bone and does not osseointegrate!
Aluminum is to prevent the implant corrosion, but unnecessarily damages the patient!